As the Third Millennium Draws Near
Tertio Mellennio Adveniente
Apostolic Letter of Pope John Paul II released
on November 14, 1994.
To the bishops, priests and deacons, men and women religious,
and all the lay faithful.
1. As the third millennium of the new era draws near, our
thoughts turn spontaneously to the words of the apostle Paul,
"When the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his
Son, born of woman" (Gal. 4:4). The fullness of time coincides
with the mystery of the incarnation of the Word, of the Son who
is of one being with the Father, and with the mystery of the
redemption of the world. In this passage, St. Paul emphasizes
that the Son of God was born of woman, born under the law, and
came into the world in order to redeem all who were under the
law so that they might receive adoption as sons and daughters.
And he adds, "Because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit
of his Son into our hearts, crying 'Abba! Father!"' His
conclusion is truly comforting: "So through God you are
no longer a slave but a son, and if a son then an heir"
Paul's presentation of the mystery of the incarnation contains
the revelation of the mystery of the Trinity and the continuation
of the Son's mission in the mission of the Holy Spirit. The incarnation
of the Son of God, his conception and birth, is the prerequisite
for the sending of the Holy Spirit. This text of St. Paul thus
allows the fullness of the mystery of the redemptive incarnation
to shine forth. Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today"
2. In his Gospel Luke has handed down to us a concise narrative
of the circumstances of Jesus' birth: "In those days a decree
went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled....
And all went to be enrolled, each to his own city. And Joseph
also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea,
to the city of, David, which is called Bethlehem, because he
was of the house and lineage of David, to be enrolled with Mary,
his betrothed, who was with child. And while they were there,
the time came for her to be delivered. And she gave birth to
her firstborn son and wrapped him in swaddling cloths, and laid
him in a manger, because there was no place for them in the inn"
Thus was fulfilled what the Angel Gabriel foretold at the
annunciation, when he spoke to the Virgin of Nazareth in these
words: "Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with you"
(Lk. 1:28). Mary was troubled by these words, and so the divine
messenger quickly added: "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you
have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your
womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will
be great and will be called the Son of the Most High.... The
Holy Spirit will come upon you and the power of the Most High
will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called
holy, the Son of God" (Lk. 1:30-33, 35). Mary's reply to
the angel was unhesitating: "Behold, I am the handmaid of
the Lord; let it be to me according to your word" (Lk. 1:38).
Never in human history did so much depend, as it did then, upon
the consent of one human creature. 
3. John, in the Prologue of his Gospel, captures in one phrase
all the depth of the mystery of the incarnation. He writes, "And
the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth;
we have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father"
(1:14). For John, the incarnation of the eternal Word, of one
being with the Father, took place in the conception and birth
of Jesus. The evangelist speaks of the Word who in the beginning
was with God, and through whom everything which exists was made;
the Word in whom was life, the life which was the light of men
(cf. 1:1-4). Of the only-begotten Son, God from God, the apostle
Paul writes that he is "the firstborn of all creation"
(Col. 1:15). God created the world through the Word. The Word
is eternal wisdom; the thought and substantial image of God;
"he reflects the glory of God and bears the very stamp of
his nature" (Heb. 1:3). Eternally begotten and eternally
loved by the Father, as God from God and light from light, he
is the principle and archetype of everything created by God in
The fact that in the fullness of time the eternal Word took
on the condition of a creature gives a unique cosmic value to
the event which took place in Bethlehem 2,000 years ago. Thanks
to the Word, the world of creatures appears as a "cosmos,"
an ordered universe. And it is the same Word who, by taking flesh,
renews the cosmic order of creation. The Letter to the Ephesians
speaks of the purpose which God had set forth in Christ, "as
a plan for the fullness of time, to unite all things in him,
things in heaven and things on earth" (1:9-10).
4. Christ, the redeemer of the world, is the one mediator
between God and men, and there is no other name under heaven
by which we can be saved (cf. Acts 4:12). As we read in the Letter
to the Ephesians: "In him we have redemption through his
blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the richness
of his grace, which he has lavished upon us. For he has made
known to us in all wisdom and insight ... his purpose which he
set forth in Christ as a plan for the fullness of time, to unite
all things in him, things in heaven and things on earth"
(1:7-10). Christ, the Son who is of one being with the Father,
is therefore the one who reveals God's plan for all creation,
and for man in particular. In the memorable phrase of the Second
Vatican Council, Christ "fully reveals man to man himself
and makes his supreme calling clear." He shows us this
calling by revealing the mystery of the Father and his love.
As the image of the invisible God, Christ is the perfect man
who has restored to the children of Adam the divine likeness
which had been deformed by sin. In his human nature, free from
all sin and assumed into the divine person of the Word, the nature
shared by all human beings is raised to a sublime dignity: "By
his incarnation the Son of God united himself in some sense with
every man. He labored with human hands, thought with a human
mind, acted with a human will and loved with a human heart. Born
of Mary the Virgin he truly became one of us and, sin apart,
was like us in every way."
5. This "becoming one of us" on the part of the
Son of God took place in the greatest humility, so it is no wonder
that secular historians, caught up by more stirring events and
by famous personages, first made only passing, albeit significant,
references to him. Such references to Christ are found for example
in The Antiquities of the Jews, a work compiled in Rome
between the years 93 and 94 by the historian Flavius Josephus,
and especially in the Annals of Tacitus, written between
the years 115 and 120, where, reporting the burning of Rome in
the year 64, falsely attributed by Nero to the Christians, the
historian makes an explicit reference to Christ "executed
by order of the procurator Pontius Pilate during the reign of
Tiberius." Suetonius, too, in his biography of the emperor
Claudius, written around 121, informs us that the Jews were expelled
from Rome because "under the instigation of a certain Chrestus
they stirred up frequent riots." This passage is generally
interpreted as referring to Jesus Christ, who had become a source
of contention within Jewish circles in Rome. Also of importance
as proof of the rapid spread of Christianity is the testimony
of Pliny the Younger, the governor of Bithynia, who reported
to the emperor Trajan, between the years 111 and 113, that a
large number of people were accustomed to gather "on a designated
day, before dawn, to sing in alternating choirs a hymn to Christ
as to a God."
But the great event which non-Christian historians merely
mention in passing takes on its full significance in the writings
of the New Testament. These writings, although documents of faith,
are no less reliable as historical testimonies if we consider
their references as a whole. Christ, true God and true man, the
Lord of the cosmos, is also the Lord of history, of which he
is "the Alpha and the Omega" (Rv. 1:8; 21:6), "the
beginning and the end" (Rv. 21:6). In him the Father has
spoken the definitive word about mankind and its history. This
is expressed in a concise and powerful way by the Letter to the
Hebrews: "In many and various ways God spoke of old to our
fathers by the prophets; but in these last days he has spoken
to us by a Son" (1:1-2).
6. Jesus was born of the chosen people, in fulfillment of
the promise made to Abraham and constantly recalled by the prophets.
The latter spoke in God's name and in his place. The economy
of the Old Testament, in fact, was essentially ordered to preparing
and proclaiming the coming of Christ, the redeemer of the universe,
and of his messianic kingdom. The books of the Old Covenant are
thus a permanent witness to a careful divine pedagogy. In
Christ this pedagogy achieves its purpose: Jesus does not in
fact merely speak "in the name of God like the prophets,
but he is God himself speaking in his eternal Word made flesh.
Here we touch upon the essential point by which Christianity
differs from all the other religions by which man's search for
God has been expressed from earliest times. Christianity has
its starting point in the incarnation of the Word. Here it is
not simply a case of man seeking God, but of God who comes in
person to speak to man of himself and to show him the path by
which he may be reached. This is what is proclaimed in the Prologue
of John's Gospel: "No one has ever seen God; the only Son,
who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known"
(1:18). The incarnate Word is thus the fulfillment of the yearning
present in all the religions of mankind: This fulfillment is
brought about by God himself and transcends all human expectations.
It is the mystery of grace.
In Christ, religion is no longer a "blind search for
God" (cf. Acts 17:27) but the response of faith to God who
reveals himself. It is a response in which man speaks to God
as his Creator and Father, a response made possible by that one
man who is also the consubstantial Word in whom God speaks to
each individual person and by whom each individual person is
enabled to respond to God. What is more, in this man all creation
responds to God. Jesus Christ is the new beginning of everything.
In him all things come into their own; they are taken up and
given back to the Creator from whom they first came. Christ is
thus the fulfillment of the yearning of all the world's religions
and, as such, he is their sole and definitive completion. Just
as God in Christ speaks to humanity of himself, so in Christ
all humanity and the whole of creation speaks of itself to God-indeed,
it gives itself to God. Everything thus returns to its origin.
Jesus Christ is the recapitulation of everything (cf. Eph. 1:10)
and at the same time the fulfillment of all things in God: a
fulfillment which is the glory of God. The religion founded upon
Jesus Christ is a religion of glory; it is a newness of life
for the praise of the glory of God (cf. Eph. 1:12). All creation
is in reality a manifestation of his glory. In particular, man
(vivens homo) is the epiphany of God's glory, man who
is called to live by the fullness of life in God.
7. In Jesus Christ God not only speaks to man but also seeks
him out. The incarnation of the Son of God attests that God goes
in search of man. Jesus speaks of this search as the finding
of a lost sheep (cf. Lk. 15:1-7). It is a search which begins
in the heart of God and culminates in the incarnation of the
Word. If God goes in search of man, created in his own image
and likeness, he does so because he loves him eternally in the
Word and wishes to raise him in Christ to the dignity of an adoptive
son. God therefore goes in search of man who is his special possession
in a way unlike any other creature. Man is God's possession by
virtue of a choice made in love: God seeks man out, moved by
his fatherly heart.
Why does God seek man out? Because man has turned away from
him, hiding himself as Adam did among the trees of the Garden
of Eden (cf. Gn. 3:8-10). Man allowed himself to be led astray
by the enemy of God (cf. Gn. 3:13). Satan deceived man, persuading
him that he too was a god, that he, like God, was capable of
knowing good and evil, ruling the world according to his own
will without having to take into account the divine will (cf.
Gn. 3:5). Going in search of man through his Son, God wishes
to persuade man to abandon the paths of evil which lead him farther
and farther afield. "Making him abandon" those paths
means making man understand that he is taking the wrong path;
it means overcoming the evil which is everywhere found in human
history. Overcoming evil: This is the meaning of the redemption.
This is brought about in the sacrifice of Christ, by which man
redeems the debt of sin and is reconciled to God. The Son of
God became man, taking a body and soul in the womb of the Virgin,
precisely for this reason: to become the perfect redeeming sacrifice.
The religion of the incarnation is the religion of the world's
redemption through the sacrifice of Christ, wherein lies victory
over evil, over sin and over death itself.
Accepting death on the cross, Christ at the same time reveals
and gives life because he rises again and death no longer has
power over him.
8. The religion which originates in the mystery of the redemptive
incarnation is the religion of "dwelling in the heart of
God," of sharing in God's very life. St. Paul speaks of
this in the passage already quoted: "God has sent the Spirit
of his Son into our hearts, crying, 'Abba! Father!"' (Gal
4:6). Man cries out like Christ himself, who turned to God "with
loud cries and tears" (Heb. 5:7), especially in Gethsemane
and on the cross: Man cries out to God just as Christ cried out
to him, and thus he bears witness that he shares in Christ's
sonship through the power of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit,
whom the Father has sent in the name of the Son, enables man
to share in the inmost life of God. He also enables man to be
a son, in the likeness of Christ, and an heir of all that belongs
to the Son (cf. Gal. 4:7). In this consists the religion of "dwelling
in the inmost life of God," which begins with the incarnation
of the Son of God. The Holy Spirit, who searches the depths of
God (cf. 1 Cor. 2:10), leads us, all mankind, into these depths
by virtue of the sacrifice of Christ.
II The Jubilee of the Year 2000
9. Speaking of the birth of the Son of God, St. Paul places
this event in the "fullness of time" (cf. Gal. 4:4).
Time is indeed fulfilled by the very fact that God, in the incarnation,
came down into human history. Eternity entered into time: What
"fulfillment" could be greater than this? What other
"fulfillment" would be possible? Some have thought
in terms of certain mysterious cosmic cycles in which the history
of the universe, and of mankind in particular, would constantly
repeat itself. True, man rises from the earth and returns to
it (cf. Gn. 3:19): This is an immediately evident fact. Yet in
man there is an irrepressible longing to live forever. How are
we to imagine a life beyond death? Some have considered various
forms of reincarnation: Depending on one's previous life, one
would receive a new life in either a higher or lower form until
full purification is attained. This belief, deeply rooted in
some Eastern religions, itself indicates that man rebels against
the finality of death. He is convinced that his nature is essentially
spiritual and immortal.
Christian revelation excludes reincarnation and speaks of
a fulfillment which man is called to achieve in the course of
a single earthly existence. Man achieves this fulfillment of
his destiny through the sincere gift of self, a gift which is
made possible only through his encounter with God. It is in God
that man finds full self-realization: This is the truth revealed
by Christ. Man fulfills himself in God, who comes to meet him
through his eternal Son. Thanks to God's coming on earth, human
time, which began at creation, has reached its fullness. "The
fullness of time" is in fact eternity, indeed, it is the
One who is eternal, God himself. Thus, to enter into "the
fullness of time" means to reach the end of time and to
transcend its limits in order to find time's fulfillment in the
eternity of God.
10. In Christianity time has a fundamental importance. Within
the dimension of time the world was created; within it the history
of salvation unfolds, finding its culmination in the "fullness
of time" of the incarnation and its goal in the glorious
return of the Son of God at the end of time. In Jesus Christ,
the Word made flesh, time becomes a dimension of God, who is
himself eternal. With the coming of Christ there begin "the
last days" (cf. Heb. 1:2), the "last hour" (cf.
1 Jn. 2:18) and the time of the church, which will last until
From this relationship of God with time there arises the duty
to sanctify time. This is done, for example, when individual
times, days or weeks are dedicated to God, as once happened in
the religion of the old covenant and as happens still, though
in a new way, in Christianity. In the liturgy of the Easter Vigil
the celebrant, as he blesses the candle which symbolizes the
risen Christ, proclaims: "Christ yesterday and today, the
beginning and the end, alpha and omega, all time belongs to him,
and all the ages, to him be glory and power through every age
forever." He says these words as he inscribes on the candle
the numerals of the current year. The meaning of this rite is
clear: It emphasizes the fact that Christ is the Lord of time;
he is its beginning and its end; every year, every day and every
moment are embraced by his incarnation and resurrection, and
thus become part of the "fullness of time." For this
reason the church too lives and celebrates the liturgy in the
span of a year. The solar year is thus permeated by the liturgical
year, which in a certain way reproduces the whole mystery of
the incarnation and redemption, beginning from the first Sunday
of Advent and ending on the solemnity of Christ the King, Lord
of the universe and Lord of history. Every Sunday commemorates
the day of the Lord's resurrection.
11. Against this background we can understand the custom of
jubilees, which began in the Old Testament and continues in the
history of the church. Jesus of Nazareth, going back one day
to the synagogue of his hometown, stood up to read (cf. Lk. 4:16-30).
Taking the book of the prophet Isaiah, he read this passage:
"The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord
has anointed me to bring good tidings to the afflicted; he has
sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to
the captives and the opening of the prison to those who are bound;
to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor" (61:1-2).
The prophet was speaking of the Messiah. "Today,"
Jesus added, "this scripture has been fulfilled in your
hearing" (Lk. 4:21), thus indicating that he himself was
the Messiah foretold by the prophet, and that the long-expected
"time" was beginning in him. The day of salvation had
come, the "fullness of time." All jubilees point to
this "time" and refer to the messianic mission of Christ,
who came as the one "anointed" by the Holy Spirit,
the one "sent by the Father." It is he who proclaims
the good news to the poor. It is he who brings liberty to those
deprived of it, who frees the oppressed and gives back sight
to the blind (cf. Mt. 11:4-5; Lk. 7:22). In this way he ushers
in "a year of the Lord's favor," which he proclaims
not only with his words but above all by his actions. The jubilee,
"a year of the Lord's favor," characterizes all the
activity of Jesus; it is not merely the recurrence of an anniversary
12. The words and deeds of Jesus thus represent the fulfillment
of the whole tradition of jubilees in the Old Testament. We know
that the jubilee was a time dedicated in a special way to God.
It fell every seventh year, according to the law of Moses: This
was the "sabbatical year," during which the earth was
left fallow and slaves were set free. The duty to free slaves
was regulated by detailed prescriptions contained in the Books
of Exodus (23:10-11), Leviticus (25:1-28) and Deuteronomy (15:1-6).
In other words, these prescriptions are found in practically
the whole of biblical legislation, which is thus marked by this
very specific characteristic. In the sabbatical year, in addition
to the freeing of slaves the law also provided for the cancellation
of all debts in accordance with precise regulations. And all
this was to be done in honor of God. What was true for the sabbatical
year was also true for the jubilee year, which fell every 50
years. In the jubilee year, however, the customs of the sabbatical
year were broadened and celebrated with even greater solemnity.
As we read in Leviticus: "You shall hallow the 50th year
and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants;
it shall be a jubilee for you, when each of you shall return
to his property and each of you shall return to his family"
(25:10). One of the most significant consequences of the jubilee
year was the general "emancipation" of all the dwellers
on the land in need of being freed. On this occasion every Israelite
regained possession of his ancestral land if he happened to have
sold it or lost it by falling into slavery. He could never be
completely deprived of the land, because it belonged to God;
nor could the Israelites remain for ever in a state of slavery,
since God had "redeemed" them for himself as his exclusive
possession by freeing them from slavery in Egypt.
13. The prescriptions for the jubilee year largely remained
ideals-more a hope than an actual fact. They thus be came a prophetia
futuri insofar as they foretold the freedom which would be
won by the coming Messiah. Even so, on the basis of the juridical
norms contained in these prescriptions a kind of social doctrine
began to emerge, which would then more clearly develop beginning
with the New Testament. The jubilee year was meant to restore
equality among all the children of Israel, offering new possibilities
to families which had lost their property and even their personal
freedom. On the other hand, the jubilee year was a reminder to
the rich that a time would come when their Israelite slaves would
once again become their equals and would be able to reclaim their
rights. At the times prescribed by law, a jubilee year had to
be proclaimed to assist those in need. This was required by just
government. Justice, according to the law of Israel, consisted
above all in the protection of the weak, and a king was supposed
to be outstanding in this regard, as the psalmist says: "He
delivers the needy when he calls, the poor and him who has no
helper. He has pity on the weak and the needy, and saves the
lives of the needy" (Ps. 72:12-13). The foundations of this
tradition were strictly theological, linked first of all with
the theology of creation and with that of divine providence.
It was a common conviction, in fact, that to God alone, as Creator,
belonged the "dominium altum"- lordship over
all creation and over the earth in particular (cf. I v. 25:23).
If in his providence God had given the earth to humanity, that
meant that he had given it to everyone. Therefore the riches
of creation were to be considered as a common good of the whole
of humanity. Those who possessed these goods as personal property
were really only stewards, ministers charged with working in
the name of God, who remains the sole owner in the full sense,
since it is God's will that created goods should serve everyone
in a just way. The jubilee year was meant to restore this social
justice. The social doctrine of the church, which has always
been a part of church teaching and which has developed greatly
in the last century, particularly after the encyclical Rerum
Novarum, is rooted in the tradition of the jubilee year.
14. What needs to be emphasized, however, is what Isaiah expresses
in the words "to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor."
For the church, the jubilee is precisely this "year of the
Lord's favor," a year of the remission of sins and of the
punishments due to them, a year of reconciliation between disputing
parties, a year of manifold conversions and of sacramental and
extrasacramental penance. The tradition of jubilee years involves
the granting of indulgences on a larger scale than at other times.
Together with jubilees recalling the mystery of the incarnation,
at intervals of 100, 50 and 25 years, there are also jubilees
which commemorate the event of the redemption: the cross of Christ,
his death on Golgotha and the resurrection. On these occasions,
the church proclaims "a year of the Lord's favor,"
and she tries to ensure that all the faithful can benefit from
this grace. That is why jubilees are celebrated not only in
urbe but also extra urbem: Traditionally the latter
took place the year after the celebration in urbe.
15. In the lives of individuals, jubilees are usually connected
with the date of birth; but other anniversaries are also celebrated
such as those of baptism, confirmation, first communion, priestly
or episcopal ordination and the sacrament of marriage. Some of
these anniversaries have parallels in the secular world, but
Christians always give them a religious character. In fact, in
the Christian view every jubilee-the 25th of marriage or priesthood,
known as "silver," the 50th, known as "golden,"
or the 60th, known as "diamond"-is a particular year
of favor for the individual who has received one or other of
the sacraments. What we have said about individuals with regard
to jubilees can also be applied to communities or institutions.
Thus we celebrate the centenary or the millennium of the foundation
of a town or city. In the church we celebrate the jubilees of
parishes and dioceses. All these personal and community jubilees
have an important and significant role in the lives of individuals
In view of this, the 2,000 years which have passed since the
birth of Christ (prescinding from the question of its precise
chronology) represent an extraordinarily great jubilee, not only
for Christians but indirectly for the whole of humanity, given
the prominent role played by Christianity during these two millennia.
It is significant that the calculation of the passing years begins
almost everywhere with the year of Christ's coming into the world,
which is thus the center of the calendar most widely used today.
Is this not another sign of the unparalleled effect of the birth
of Jesus of Nazareth on the history of mankind?
16. The term jubilee speaks of joy; not just an inner
joy but a jubilation which is manifested outwardly, for the coming
of God is also an outward, visible, audible and tangible event,
as St. John makes clear (cf. 1 Jn. 1: 1). It is thus appropriate
that every sign of joy at this coming should have its own outward
expression. This will demonstrate that the church rejoices in
salvation. She invites everyone to rejoice, and she tries to
create conditions to ensure that the power of salvation may be
shared by all. Hence the year 2000 will be celebrated as the
With regard to its content this Great Jubilee will be, in
a certain sense, like any other. But at the same time it will
be different, greater than any other. For the church respects
the measurements of time: hours, days, years, centuries. She
thus goes forward with every individual, helping everyone to
realize how each of these measurements of time is imbued with
the presence of God and with his saving activity. In this spirit
the church rejoices, gives thanks and asks forgiveness, presenting
her petitions to the Lord of history and of human consciences.
Among the most fervent petitions which the church makes to
the Lord during this important time, as the eve of the new millennium
approaches, is that unity among all Christians of the various
confessions will increase until they reach full communion. I
pray that the jubilee will be a promising opportunity for fruitful
cooperation in the many areas which unite us; these are unquestionably
more numerous than those which divide us. It would thus be quite
helpful if, with due respect for the programs of the individual
churches and communities, ecumenical agreements could be reached
with regard to the preparation and celebration of the jubilee.
In this way the jubilee will bear witness even more forcefully
before the world that the disciples of Christ are fully resolved
to reach full unity as soon as possible in the certainty that
"nothing is impossible with God."
III Preparation for the Great Jubilee
17. In the church's history every jubilee is prepared for
by divine providence. This is true also of the Great Jubilee
of the year 2000. With this conviction, we look today with a
sense of gratitude and yet with a sense of responsibility at
all that has happened in human history since the birth of Christ,
particularly the events which have occurred between the years
1000 and 2000. But in a very particular way we look with the
eyes of faith to our own century, searching out whatever bears
witness not only to man's history but also to God's intervention
in human affairs.
18. From this point of view we can affirm that the Second
Vatican Council was a providential event whereby the church began
the more immediate preparation for the jubilee of the second
millennium. It was a council similar to earlier ones, yet very
different; it was a council focused on the mystery of Christ
and his church, and at the same time open to the world. This
openness was an evangelical response to recent changes in the
world, including the profoundly disturbing experiences of the
20th century, a century scarred by the First and Second World
Wars, by the experience of concentration camps and by horrendous
massacres. All these events demonstrate most vividly that the
world needs purification; it needs to be converted.
The Second Vatican Council is often considered as the beginning
of a new era in the life of the church. This is true, but at
the same time it is difficult to overlook the fact that the council
drew much from the experiences and reflections of the immediate
past, especially from the intellectual legacy left by Pius XII.
In the history of the church, the "old" and the "new"
are always closely interwoven. The "new" grows out
of the "old," and the "old" finds a fuller
expression in the "new." Thus it was for the Second
Vatican Council and for the activity of the popes connected with
the council, starting with John XXIII, continuing with Paul VI
and John Paul I, up to the present pope.
What these popes have accomplished during and since the council,
in their magisterium no less than in their pastoral activity,
has certainly made a significant contribution to the preparation
of that new springtime of Christian life which will be revealed
by the Great Jubilee if Christians are docile to the action of
the Holy Spirit.
19. The council, while not imitating the sternness of John
the Baptist who called for repentance and conversion on the banks
of the Jordan (cf. Lk. 3:1-7), did show something of the prophet
of old, pointing out with fresh vigor to the men and women of
today that Jesus Christ is the "Lamb of God who takes away
the sin of the world" (Jn. 1:29), the redeemer of humanity
and the Lord of history. During the council, precisely out of
a desire to be fully faithful to her master, the church questioned
herself about her own identity and discovered anew the depth
of her mystery as the body and the bride of Christ. Humbly heeding
the word of God, she reaffirmed the universal call to holiness;
she made provision for the reform of the liturgy, the "origin
and summit" of her life; she gave impetus to the renewal
of many aspects of her life at the universal level and in the
local churches; she strove to promote the various Christian vocations,
from those of the laity to those of religious, from the ministry
of deacons to that of priests and bishops; and in a particular
way she rediscovered episcopal collegiality, that privileged
expression of the pastoral service carried out by the bishops
in communion with the successor of Peter. On the basis of this
profound renewal, the council opened itself to Christians of
other denominations, to the followers of other religions and
to all the people of our time. No council had ever spoken so
clearly about Christian unity, about dialogue with non-Christian
religions, about the specific meaning of the old covenant and
of Israel, about the dignity of each person's conscience, about
the principle of religious liberty, about the different cultural
traditions within which the church carries out her missionary
mandate and about the means of social communication.
20. The council's enormously rich body of teaching and the
striking new tone in the way it presented this content constitute
as it were a proclamation of new times. The council fathers spoke
in the language of the Gospel, the language of the Sermon on
the Mount and the Beatitudes. In the council's message God is
presented in his absolute lordship over all things, but also
as the one who ensures the authentic autonomy of earthly realities.
The best preparation for the new millennium, therefore, can
only be expressed in a renewed commitment to apply, as faithfully
as possible, the teachings of Vatican II to the life of every
individual and of the whole church. It was with the Second Vatican
Council that, in the broadest sense of the term, the immediate
preparations for the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 were really
begun. If we look for an analogy in the liturgy, it could be
said that the yearly Advent liturgy is the season nearest to
the spirit of the council. For Advent prepares us to meet the
one who was, who is and who is to come (cf. Rv. 4:8).
21. Part of the preparation for the approach of the Year 2000
is the series of synods begun after the Second Vatican Council:
general synods together with continental, regional, national
and diocesan synods. The theme underlying them all is evangelization,
or rather the new evangelization, the foundations of which were
laid down in the apostolic exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi
of Pope Paul VI, issued in 1975 following the third general assembly
of the Synod of Bishops. These synods themselves are part of
the new evangelization: They were born of the Second Vatican
Council's vision of the church. They open up broad areas for
the participation of the laity, whose specific responsibilities
in the church they define. They are an expression of the strength
which Christ has given to the entire people of God, making it
a sharer in his own messianic mission as prophet, priest and
king. Very eloquent in this regard are the statements of the
dogmatic constitution Lumen Gentium. The preparation for the
Jubilee Year 2000 is thus taking place throughout the whole church,
on the universal and local levels, giving her a new awareness
of the salvific mission she has received from Christ. This awareness
is particularly evident in the post-synodal exhortations devoted
to the mission of the laity, the formation of priests, catechesis,
the family, the value of penance and reconciliation in the life
of the church and of humanity in general, as well as in the forthcoming
one to be devoted to the consecrated life.
22. Special tasks and responsibilities with regard to the
Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 belong to the ministry of the
bishop of Rome. In a certain sense, all the popes of the past
century have prepared for this jubilee. With his program to renew
all things in Christ, St. Pius X tried to forestall the tragic
developments which arose from the international situation at
the beginning of this century. The church was aware of her duty
to act decisively to promote and defend the basic values of peace
and justice in the face of contrary tendencies in our time. The
popes of the period before the council acted with firm commitment,
each in his own way: Benedict XV found himself faced with the
tragedy of the First World War; Pius XI had to contend with the
threats of totalitarian systems or systems which did not respect
human freedom in Germany, in Russia, in Italy, in Spain, and
even earlier still in Mexico. Pius XII took steps to counter
the very grave injustice brought about by a total contempt for
human dignity at the time of the Second World War. He also provided
enlightened guidelines for the birth of a new world order after
the fall of the previous political systems.
Furthermore, in the course of this century the popes, following
in the footsteps of Leo XIII, systematically developed the themes
of Catholic social doctrine, expounding the characteristics of
a just system in the area of relations between labor and capital.
We may recall the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno of Pius
XI, the numerous interventions of Pius XII, the encyclicals Mater
et Magistra and Pacem in Terris of John XXIII, the
encyclical Populorum Progressio and the apostolic letter
Octogesima Adveniens of Paul VI. I, too, have frequently
dealt with this subject. I specifically devoted the encyclical
Laborem Exercens to the importance of human labor, while
in Centesimus Annus I wished to reaffirm the relevance,
100 years later, of the doctrine presented in Rerum Novarum.
In my encyclical Sollicitudo Rei Socialis I had earlier
offered a systematic reformulation of the church's entire social
doctrine against the background of the East-West confrontation
and the danger of nuclear war. The two elements of the church's
social doctrine-the safeguarding of human dignity and rights
in the sphere of a just relation between labor and capital, and
the promotion of peace-were closely joined in this text. The
papal messages of Jan. 1 each year, begun in 1968 in the pontificate
of Paul VI, are also meant to serve the cause of peace.
23. Since the publication of the very first document of my
pontificate I have spoken explicitly of the Great Jubilee, suggesting
that the time leading up to it be lived as "a new Advent."
This theme has since reappeared many times, and was dwelt upon
at length in the encyclical Dominum et Vivificantem.
In fact, preparing for the year 2000 has become as it were a
hermeneutical key of my pontificate. It is certainly not a matter
of indulging in a new millenarianism, as occurred in some quarters
at the end of the first millennium; rather, it is aimed at an
increased sensitivity to all that the Spirit is saying to the
church and to the churches (cf. Rv. 2:7 f), as well as to individuals
through charisms meant to serve the whole community. The purpose
is to emphasize what the Spirit is suggesting to the different
communities, from the smallest ones, such as the family, to the
largest ones, such as nations and international organizations,
taking into account cultures, societies and sound traditions.
Despite appearances, humanity continues to await the revelation
of the children of God and lives by this hope, like a mother
in labor, to use the image employed so powerfully by St. Paul
in his Letter to the Romans (cf. 8: 19-22).
24. Papal journeys have become an important element in the
work of implementing the Second Vatican Council. Begun by John
XXIII on the eve of the council with a memorable pilgrimage to
Loreto and Assisi (1962), they notably increased under Paul VI,
who after first visiting the Holy Land (1964) undertook nine
other great apostolic journeys which brought him into direct
contact with the peoples of the different continents.
The current pontificate has widened this program of travels
even further, starting with Mexico, on the occasion of the Third
General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate held in Puebla
in 1979. In that same year there was also the trip to Poland
for the jubilee of the 900th anniversary of the death of St.
Stanislaus, bishop and martyr.
The successive stages of these travels are well known. Papal
journeys have become a regular occurrence, taking in the particular
churches in every continent and showing concern for the development
of ecumenical relationships with Christians of various denominations.
Particularly important in this regard were the visits to Turkey
(1979), Germany (1980), England, Scotland and Wales (1982), Switzerland
(1984), the Scandinavian countries (1989) and most recently the
Baltic countries (1993).
At present, it is my fervent wish to visit Sarajevo in Bosnia-Herzegovina
and the Middle East: Lebanon, Jerusalem and the Holy Land. It
would be very significant if in the year 2000 it were possible
to visit the places on the road taken by the people of God of
the Old Covenant, starting from the places associated with Abraham
and Moses, through Egypt and Mount Sinai, as far as Damascus,
the city which witnessed the conversion of St. Paul.
25. In preparing for the year 2000, the individual churches
have their own role to play, as they celebrate with their own
jubilees significant stages in the salvation history of the various
peoples. Among these regional or local jubilees, events of great
importance have included the millennium of the baptism of Rus'
in 1988 as also the 500th anniversary of the beginning of
evangelization in America (1492). Besides events of such wide-ranging
impact, we may recall others which, although not of universal
importance, are no less significant: For example, the millennium
of the baptism of Poland in 1966 and of the baptism of Hungary
in 1968, together with the 600th anniversary of the baptism of
Lithuania in 1987. There will soon also be celebrated the 1,500th
anniversary of the baptism of Clovis (496), king of the Franks,
and the 1,400th anniversary of the arrival of St. Augustine in
Canterbury (597), marking the beginning of the evangelization
of the Anglo-Saxon world.
As far as Asia is concerned, the jubilee will remind us of
the apostle Thomas, who according to tradition brought the proclamation
of the Gospel at the very beginning of the Christian era to India,
where missionaries from Portugal would not arrive until about
the year 1500. The current year also marks the seventh centenary
of the evangelization of China (1294), and we are preparing to
commemorate the spread of missionary work in the Philippines
with the erection of the Metropolitan See of Manila (1595). We
likewise look forward to the fourth centenary of the first martyrs
in Japan (1597).
In Africa, where the first proclamation of the Gospel also
dates back to apostolic times, together with the 1,650th anniversary
of the episcopal consecration of the first bishop of the Ethiopians,
St. Frumentius (c. 340), and the 500th anniversary of the beginning
of the evangelization of Angola in the ancient kingdom of the
Congo (1491), nations such as Cameroon, Ivory Coast, the Central
African Republic, Burundi and Burkina Faso are celebrating the
centenaries of the arrival of the first missionaries in their
respective territories. Other African nations have recently celebrated
And how can we fail to mention the Eastern churches, whose
ancient patriarchates are so closely linked to the apostolic
heritage and whose venerable theological, liturgical and spiritual
traditions constitute a tremendous wealth which is the common
patrimony of the whole of Christianity? The many jubilee celebrations
in these churches and in the communities which acknowledge them
as the origin of their own apostolicity recall the journey of
Christ down the centuries, leading to the Great Jubilee at the
end of the second millennium. Seen in this light, the whole of
Christian history appears to us as a single river, into which
many tributaries pour their waters. The year 2000 invites us
to gather with renewed fidelity and ever deeper communion along
the banks of this great river: the river of revelation, of Christianity
and of the church, a river which flows through human history
starting from the event which took place at Nazareth and then
at Bethlehem 2,000 years ago. This is truly the "river"
which with its "streams," in the expression of the
psalm, "make glad the city of God" (46:4).
26. The holy years celebrated in the latter part of this century
have also prepared for the year 2000. The holy year proclaimed
by Paul VI in 1975 is still fresh in our memory. The celebration
of 1983 as the Year of Redemption followed along the same lines.
The Marian Year 1986/87 perhaps struck a more resounding chord;
it was eagerly awaited and profoundly experienced in the individual
local churches, especially at the Marian shrines around the world.
The encyclical Redemptoris Mater, issued on that occasion,
drew attention to the council's teaching on the presence of the
mother of God in the mystery of Christ and the church: 2,000
years ago the Son of God was made man by the power of the Holy
Spirit and was born of the immaculate Virgin Mary. The Marian
Year was as it were an anticipation of the jubilee and contained
much of what will find fuller expression in the year 2000.
27. It would be difficult not to recall that the Marian Year
took place only shortly before the events of 1989. Those events
remain surprising for their vastness and especially for the speed
with which they occurred. The '80s were years marked by a growing
danger from the Cold War. 1989 ushered in a peaceful resolution
which took the form, as it were, of an "organic" development.
In the light of this fact, we are led to recognize a truly prophetic
significance in the encyclical Rerum Novarum: Everything
that Pope Leo XIII wrote there about communism was borne out
by these events, as I emphasized in the encyclical Centesimus
Annus. In the unfolding of those events one could already
discern the invisible hand of providence at work with maternal
care: "Can a woman forget her infant?" (Is. 49:15).
After 1989 however there arose new dangers and threats. In
the countries of the former Eastern bloc, after the fall of communism,
there appeared the serious threat of exaggerated nationalism,
as is evident from events in the Balkans and other neighboring
areas. This obliges the European nations to make a serious examination
of conscience, and to acknowledge faults and errors, both economic
and political, resulting from imperialist policies carried out
in the previous and present centuries vis-a-vis nations whose
rights have been systematically violated.
28. In the wake of the Marian Year, we are now observing the
Year of the Family, a celebration which is closely connected
with the mystery of the incarnation and with the very history
of humanity. Thus there is good cause to hope that the Year of
the Family, inaugurated at Nazareth, will become, like the Marian
Year, another significant stage in preparation for the Great
With this in view, I wrote a "Letter to Families,"
the purpose of which was to restate the substance of the church's
teaching on the family and to bring this teaching, so to speak,
into every home. At the Second Vatican Council, the church recognized
her duty to promote the dignity of marriage and the family.
The Year of the Family is meant to help make the council's teaching
in this regard a reality. Each family, in some way, should be
involved in the preparation for the Great Jubilee. Was it not
through a family, the family of Nazareth, that the Son of God
chose to enter into human history?
IV Immediate Preparation
29. Against the background of this sweeping panorama a question
arises: can we draw up a specific program of initiatives for
the immediate preparation of the Great Jubilee? In fact, what
has been said above already includes some elements of such a
A more detailed plan of specific events will call for widespread
consultation in order for it not to be artificial and difficult
to implement in the particular churches, which live in such different
conditions. For this reason I wished to consult the presidents
of the episcopal conferences and especially the cardinals.
I am grateful to the members of the College of Cardinals who
met in extraordinary consistory June 13-14, 1994, considered
numerous proposals and suggested helpful guidelines. I also thank
my brothers in the episcopate who in various ways communicated
valuable ideas, which I have kept carefully in mind while writing
this apostolic letter.
30. The first recommendation which clearly emerged from the
consultation regards the period of preparation. Only a few years
now separate us from the year 2000: It seemed fitting to divide
this period into two phases, reserving the strictly preparatory
phase for the last three years. It was thought that the accumulation
of many activities over the course of a longer period of preparation
would detract from its spiritual intensity. It was therefore
considered appropriate to approach the historic date with a first
phase, which would make the faithful aware of general themes,
and then to concentrate the direct and immediate preparation
into a second phase consisting of a three-year period wholly
directed to the celebration of the mystery of Christ the savior.
A. First Phase
31. The first phase will therefore be of an ante-preparatory
character; it is meant to revive in the Christian people an awareness
of the value and meaning of the Jubilee of the Year 2000 in human
history. As a commemoration of the birth of Christ, the jubilee
is deeply charged with Christological significance.
In keeping with the unfolding of the Christian faith in word
and sacrament, it seems important, even in this special anniversary,
to link the structure of memorial with that of celebration, not
limiting commemoration of the event only to ideas but also making
its saving significance present through the celebration of the
sacraments. The jubilee celebration should confirm the Christians
of today in their faith in God who has revealed himself in Christ,
sustain their hope which reaches out in expectation of eternal
life and rekindle their charity in active service to their brothers
During the first stage (1994 to 1996) the Holy See, through
a special committee established for this purpose, will suggest
courses of reflection and action at the universal level. A similar
commitment to promoting awareness will be carried out in a more
detailed way by corresponding commissions in the local churches.
In a way, it is a question of continuing what was done in the
period of remote preparation and at the same time of coming to
a deeper appreciation of the most significant aspects of the
32. A jubilee is always an occasion of special grace, "a
day blessed by the Lord." As has already been noted, it
is thus a time of joy. The Jubilee of the Year 2000 is meant
to be a great prayer of praise and thanksgiving, especially for
the gift of the incarnation of the Son of God and of the redemption
which he accomplished. In the jubilee year Christians will stand
with the renewed wonder of faith before the love of the Father,
who gave his Son, "that whoever believes in him should not
perish but have eternal life" (Jn. 3:16). With a profound
sense of commitment, they will likewise express their gratitude
for the gift of the church, established by Christ as "a
kind of sacrament or sign of intimate union with God, and of
the unity of all mankind." Their thanksgiving will embrace
the fruits of holiness which have matured in the life of all
those many men and women who in every generation and every period
of history have fully welcomed the gift of redemption.
Nevertheless, the joy of every jubilee is above all a joy
based upon the forgiveness of sins, the joy of conversion. It
therefore seems appropriate to emphasize once more the theme
of the Synod of Bishops in 1983: penance and reconciliation.
That synod was an event of extraordinary significance in the
life of the post-conciliar church. It took up the ever topical
question of conversion (metanoia), which is the pre-condition
for reconciliation with God on the part of both individuals and
33. Hence it is appropriate that as the second millennium
of Christianity draws to a close the church should become more
fully conscious of the sinfulness of her children, recalling
all those times in history when they departed from the spirit
of Christ and his Gospel and, instead of offering to the world
the witness of a life inspired by the values of faith, indulged
in ways of thinking and acting which were truly forms of counterwitness
Although she is holy because of her incorporation into Christ,
the church does not tire of doing penance: Before God and man
she always acknowledges as her own her sinful sons and daughters.
As Lumen Gentium affirms: "The church, embracing sinners
to her bosom, is at the same time holy and always in need of
being purified, and incessantly pursues the path of penance and
The holy door of the Jubilee of the Year 2000 should be symbolically
wider than those of previous jubilees, because humanity, upon
reaching this goal, will leave behind not just a century but
a millennium. It is fitting that the church should make this
passage with a clear awareness of what has happened to her during
the last 10 centuries. She cannot cross the threshold of the
new millennium without encouraging her children to purify themselves,
through repentance, of past errors and instances of infidelity,
inconsistency and slowness to act. Acknowledging the weaknesses
of the past is an act of honesty and courage which helps us to
strengthen our faith, which alerts us to face today's temptations
and challenges, and prepares us to meet them.
34. Among the sins which require a greater commitment to repentance
and conversion should certainly be counted those which have been
detrimental to the unity willed by God for his people. In the
course of the 1,000 years now drawing to a close, even more than
in the first millennium, ecclesial communion has been painfully
wounded, a fact "for which, at times, men of both sides
were to blame." Such wounds openly contradict the will
of Christ and are a cause of scandal to the world. These
sins of the past unfortunately still burden us and remain ever
present temptations. It is necessary to make amends for them,
and earnestly to beseech Christ's forgiveness.
In these last years of the millennium, the church should invoke
the Holy Spirit with ever greater insistence, imploring from
him the grace of Christian unity. This is a crucial matter for
our testimony to the Gospel before the world. Especially since
the Second Vatican Council many ecumenical initiatives have been
undertaken with generosity and commitment: It can be said that
the whole activity of the local churches and of the Apostolic
See has taken on an ecumenical dimension in recent years. The
Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity has become
an important catalyst in the movement toward full unity.
We are all, however, aware that the attainment of this goal
cannot be the fruit of human efforts alone, vital though they
are. Unity, after all, is a gift of the Holy Spirit. We are asked
to respond to this gift responsibly, without compromise in our
witness to the truth, generously implementing the guidelines
laid down by the council and in subsequent documents of the Holy
See, which are also highly regarded by many Christians not in
full communion with the Catholic Church.
This then is one of the tasks of Christians as we make our
way to the year 2000. The approaching end of the second millennium
demands of everyone an examination of conscience and the promotion
of fitting ecumenical initiatives so that we can celebrate the
Great Jubilee, if not completely united, at least much closer
to overcoming the divisions of the second millennium. As everyone
recognizes, an enormous effort is needed in this regard. It is
essential not only to continue along the path of dialogue on
doctrinal matters, but above all to be more committed to prayer
for Christian unity. Such prayer has become much more intense
after the council, but it must increase still more, involving
an ever greater number of Christians, in unison with the great
petition of Christ before his passion: "Father... that they
also may all be one in us" (Jn. 17:21).
35. Another painful chapter of history to which the sons and
daughters of the church must return with a spirit of repentance
is that of the acquiescence given, especially in certain centuries,
to intolerance and even the use of violence in the service of
It is true that an accurate historical judgment cannot prescind
from careful study of the cultural conditioning of the times,
as a result of which many people may have held in good faith
that an authentic witness to the truth could include suppressing
the opinions of others or at least paying no attention to them.
Many factors frequently converged to create assumptions which
justified intolerance and fostered an emotional climate from
which only great spirits, truly free and filled with God, were
in some way able to break free. Yet the consideration of mitigating
factors does not exonerate the church from the obligation to
express profound regret for the weaknesses of so many of her
sons and daughters who sullied her face, preventing her from
fully mirroring the image of her crucified Lord, the supreme
witness of patient love and of humble meekness. From these painful
moments of the past a lesson can be drawn for the future, leading
all Christians to adhere fully to the sublime principle stated
by the council: "The truth cannot impose itself except by
virtue of its own truth, as it wins over the mind with both gentleness
36. Many cardinals and bishops expressed the desire for a
serious examination of conscience above all on the part of the
church of today. On the threshold of the new millennium Christians
need to place themselves humbly before the Lord and examine themselves
on the responsibility which they too have for the evils of our
day. The present age in fact, together with much light, also
presents not a few shadows.
How can we remain silent, for example, about the religious
indifference which causes many people today to live as if God
did not exist or to be content with a vague religiosity, incapable
of coming to grips with the question of truth and the requirement
of consistency? To this must also be added the widespread loss
of the transcendent sense of human life and confusion in the
ethical sphere, even about the fundamental values of respect
for life and the family. The sons and daughters of the church,
too, need to examine themselves in this regard. To what extent
have they been shaped by the climate of secularism and ethical
relativism? And what responsibility do they bear, in view of
the increasing lack of religion, for not having shown the true
face of God, by having "failed in their religious, moral
or social life"?
It cannot be denied that for many Christians the spiritual
life is passing through a time of uncertainty which affects not
only their moral life but also their life of prayer and the theological
correctness of their faith. Faith, already put to the test by
the challenges of our times, is sometimes disoriented by erroneous
theological views, the spread of which is abetted by the crisis
of obedience vis-a-vis the church's magisterium.
And with respect to the church of our time, how can we not
lament the lack of discernment, which at times became even acquiescence,
shown by many Christians concerning the violation of fundamental
human rights by totalitarian regimes? And should we not also
regret, among the shadows of our own day, the responsibility
shared by so many Christians for grave forms of injustice and
exclusion? It must be asked how many Christians really know and
put into practice the principles of the church's social doctrine.
An examination of conscience must also consider the reception
given to the council, this great gift of the Spirit to the church
at the end of the second millennium. To what extent has the word
of God become more fully the soul of theology and the inspiration
of the whole of Christian living, as Dei Verbum sought?
Is the liturgy lived as the "origin and summit" of
ecclesial life, in accordance with the teaching of Sacrosanctum
Concilium? In the universal church and in the particular
churches, is the ecclesiology of communion described in Lumen
Gentium being strengthened? Does it leave room for charisms,
ministries and different forms of participation by the people
of God, without adopting notions borrowed from democracy and
sociology which do not reflect the Catholic vision of the church
and the authentic spirit of Vatican II? Another serious question
is raised by the nature of relations between the church and the
world. The council's guidelines-set forth in Gaudium et Spes
and other documents-- of open, respectful and cordial dialogue,
yet accompanied by careful discernment and courageous witness
to the truth, remain valid and call us to a greater commitment.
37. The church of the first millennium was born of the blood
of the martyrs: "Sanguis martyrum - semen christianorum."
The historical events linked to the figure of Constantine the
Great could never have ensured the development of the church
as it occurred during the first millennium if it had not been
for the seeds sown by the martyrs and the heritage of sanctity
which marked the first Christian generations. At the end of the
second millennium, the church has once again become a church
of martyrs. The persecutions of believers - priests, religious
and laity - has caused a great sowing of martyrdom in different
parts of the world. The witness to Christ borne even to the shedding
of blood has become a common inheritance of Catholics, Orthodox,
Anglicans and Protestants, as Pope Paul VI pointed out in his
homily for the canonization of the Ugandan martyrs. This
witness must not be forgotten. The church of the first centuries,
although facing considerable organizational difficulties, took
care to write down in special martyrologies the witness of the
martyrs. These martyrologies have been constantly updated through
the centuries, and the register of the saints and the blessed
bears the names not only of those who have shed their blood for
Christ but also of teachers of the faith, missionaries, confessors,
bishops, priests, virgins, married couples, widows and children.
In our own century the martyrs have returned, many of them
nameless, "unknown soldiers" as it were of God's great
cause. As far as possible, their witness should not be lost to
the church. As was recommended in the consistory, the local churches
should do everything possible to ensure that the memory of those
who have suffered martyrdom should be safeguarded, gathering
the necessary documentation. This gesture cannot fail to have
an ecumenical character and expression. Perhaps the most convincing
form of ecumenism is the ecumenism of the saints and of the martyrs.
The communio sanctorum speaks louder than the things which
divide us. The martyrologium of the first centuries was the basis
of the veneration of the saints. By proclaiming and venerating
the holiness of her sons and daughters, the church gave supreme
honor to God himself; in the martyrs she venerated Christ, who
was at the origin of their martyrdom and of their holiness. In
later times there developed the practice of canonization, a practice
which still continues in the Catholic Church and in the Orthodox
churches. In recent years the number of canonizations and beatifications
has increased. These show the vitality of the local churches,
which are much more numerous today than in the first centuries
and in the first millennium. The greatest homage which all the
churches can give to Christ on the threshold of the third millennium
will be to manifest the redeemer's all-powerful presence through
the fruits of faith, hope and charity present in men and women
of many different tongues and races who have followed Christ
in the various forms of the Christian vocation.
It will be the task of the Apostolic See, in preparation for
the year 2000, to update the martyrologies for the universal
church, paying careful attention to the holiness of those who
in our own time lived fully by the truth of Christ. In particular,
there is a need to foster the recognition of the heroic virtues
of men and women who have lived their Christian vocation in marriage.
Precisely because we are convinced of the abundant fruits of
holiness in the married state, we need to find the most appropriate
means for discerning them and proposing them to the whole church
as a model and encouragement for other Christian spouses.
38. A further need emphasized by the cardinals and bishops
is that of continental synods, following the example of those
already held for Europe and Africa. The last General Conference
of the Latin American Episcopate accepted, in agreement with
the bishops of North America, the proposal for a Synod for the
Americas on the problems of the new evangelization in both parts
of the same continent, so different in origin and history, and
on issues of justice and of international economic relations
in view of the enormous gap between North and South.
Another plan for a continent-wide synod will concern Asia,
where the issue of the encounter of Christianity with ancient
local cultures and religions is a pressing one. This is a great
challenge for evangelization, since religious systems such as
Buddhism or Hinduism have a clearly soteriological character.
There is also an urgent need for a synod on the occasion of the
Great Jubilee in order to illustrate and explain more fully the
truth that Christ is the one mediator between God and man and
the sole redeemer of the world, to be clearly distinguished from
the founders of other great religions. With sincere esteem, the
church regards the elements of truth found in those religions
as a reflection of the truth which enlightens all men and women.
"Ecce natus est nobis Salvator mundi": In the
year 2000 the proclamation of this truth should resound with
Also for Oceania a regional synod could be useful. In this
region there arises the question, among others, of the aboriginal
people, who in a unique way evoke aspects of human prehistory.
In this synod a matter not to be overlooked, together with other
problems of the region, would be the encounter of Christianity
with the most ancient forms of religion, profoundly marked by
a monotheistic orientation.
B. Second Phase
39. On the basis of this vast program aimed at creating awareness,
it will then be possible to begin the second phase, the strictly
preparatory phase. This will take place over the span of three
years, from 1997 to 1999. The thematic structure of this three-year
period, centered on Christ, the Son of God made man, must necessarily
be theological, and therefore Trinitarian.
Year 1: Jesus Christ
40. The first year, 1997, will thus be devoted to reflection
on Christ, the Word of God, made man by the power of the Holy
Spirit. The distinctly Christological character of the jubilee
needs to be emphasized, for it will celebrate the incarnation
and coming into the world of the Son of God, the mystery of salvation
for all mankind. The general theme proposed by many cardinals
and bishops for this year is: "Jesus Christ, the one savior
of the world, yesterday, today and forever" (cf. Heb. 13:8).
Among the Christological themes suggested in the consistory
the following stand out: a renewed appreciation of Christ, savior
and proclaimer of the Gospel, with special reference to the fourth
chapter of the Gospel of Luke where the theme of Christ's mission
of preaching the good news and the theme of the jubilee arc woven;
a deeper standing of the mystery of the incarnation and of Jesus'
birth from the Virgin Mary; the necessity of faith in Christ
for salvation. In order to recognize who Christ truly is, Christians,
especially in the course of this year, should turn with renewed
interest to the Bible, "whether it be through the liturgy,
rich in the divine word, or through devotional reading, or through
instructions suitable for the purpose and other aids."
In the revealed text it is the heavenly Father himself who comes
to us in love and who dwells with us, disclosing to us the nature
of his only-begotten Son and his plan of salvation for humanity.
41. The commitment, mentioned earlier, to make the mystery
of salvation sacramentally present can lead, in the course of
the year, to a renewed appreciation of baptism as the basis of
Christian living, according to the words of the apostle: "As
many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ"
(Gal. 3:27). The Catechism of the Catholic Church, for its part,
recalls that baptism constitutes "the foundation of communion
among all Christians, including those who are not yet in full
communion with the Catholic Church." From an ecumenical
point of view, this will certainly be a very important year for
Christians to look together to Christ the one Lord, deepening
our commitment to become one in him in accordance with his prayer
to the Father. This emphasis on the centrality of Christ, of
the word of God and of faith ought to inspire interest among
Christians of other denominations and meet with a favorable response
42. Everything ought to focus on the primary objective of
the jubilee: the strengthening of faith and of the witness of
Christians. It is therefore necessary to inspire in all the faithful
a true longing for holiness, a deep desire for conversion and
personal renewal in a context of ever more intense prayer and
of solidarity with one's neighbor, especially the most needy.
The first year therefore will be the opportune moment for
a renewed appreciation of catechesis in its original meaning
as "the apostles' teaching" (Acts 2:42) about the person
of Jesus Christ and his mystery of salvation. In this regard,
a detailed study of the Catechism of the Catholic Church will
prove of great benefit, for the catechism presents "faithfully
and systematically ... the teaching of sacred Scripture, the
living tradition of the church and the authentic magisterium,
as well as the spiritual heritage of the fathers, doctors and
saints of the church, to allow for a better knowledge of the
Christian mystery and for enlivening the faith of the people
of God." To be realistic we need to enlighten the consciences
of the faithful concerning errors regarding the person of Christ,
clarifying objections against him and against the church.
43. The Blessed Virgin, who will be as it were "indirectly"
present in the whole preparatory phase, will be contemplated
in this first year especially in the mystery of her divine motherhood.
It was in her womb that the Word became flesh! The affirmation
of the central place of Christ cannot therefore be separated
from the recognition of the role played by his most holy mother.
Veneration of her, when properly understood, can in no way take
away from "the dignity and efficacy of Christ the one mediator."
Mary, in fact, constantly points to her divine son and she is
proposed to all believers as the model of faith which is put
"Devotedly meditating on her and contemplating her in
the light of the Word made man, the church with reverence enters
more intimately into the supreme mystery of the incarnation and
becomes ever increasingly like her spouse."
Year 2: The Holy Spirit
44. 1998, the second year of the preparatory phase, will be
dedicated in a particular way to the Holy Spirit and to his sanctifying
presence within the community of Christ's disciples. "The
great jubilee at the close of the second millennium...,"
I wrote in the encyclical Dominum et Vivificantem, "has
a pneumatological aspect since the mystery of the incarnation
was accomplished 'by the power of the Holy Spirit.' It was 'brought
about' by that Spirit-consubstantial with the Father and the
Son-who, in the absolute mystery of the triune God, is the person-love,
the uncreated gift, who is the eternal source of every gift that
comes from God in the order of creation, the direct principle
and, in a certain sense, the subject of God's self-communication
in the order of grace. The mystery of the incarnation constitutes
the climax of this giving, this divine self- communication."
The church cannot prepare for the new millennium "in
any other way than in the Holy Spirit. What was accomplished
by the power of the Holy Spirit 'in the fullness of time' can
only through the Spirit's power now emerge from the memory of
The Spirit, in fact, makes present in the church of every
time and place the unique revelation brought by Christ to humanity,
making it alive and active in the soul of each individual: "The
counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name,
he will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all
that I have said to you" (Jn. 14:26).
45. The primary tasks of the preparation for the jubilee thus
include a renewed appreciation of the presence and activity of
the Spirit, who acts within the church both in the sacraments,
especially in confirmation, and in the variety of charisms, roles
and ministries which he inspires for the good of the church:
There is only one Spirit who, according to his own richness and
the needs of the ministries, distributes his different gifts
for the welfare of the church (cf. 1 Cor 12:1-11). Among these
gifts stands out the grace given to the apostles. To their authority,
the Spirit himself subjected even those who were endowed with
charisms (cf. 1 Cor. 14). Giving the body unity through himself,
and through his power, and through the internal cohesion of its
members, this same Spirit produces and urges love among the believers."
In our own day too, the Spirit is the principal agent of the
new evangelization. Hence it will be important to gain a renewed
appreciation of the Spirit as the one who builds the kingdom
of God within the course of history and prepares its full manifestation
in Jesus Christ, stirring people's hearts and quickening in our
world the seeds of the full salvation which will come at the
end of time.
46. In this eschatological perspective, believers should be
called to a renewed appreciation of the theological virtue of
hope, which they have already heard proclaimed "in the word
of the truth, the Gospel" (Col 1:5). The basic attitude
of hope, on the one hand, encourages the Christian not to lose
sight of the final goal which gives meaning and value to life,
and on the other offers solid and profound reasons for a daily
commitment to transform reality in order to make it correspond
to God's plan.
As the apostle Paul reminds us: "We know that the whole
creation has been groaning in travail together until now; and
not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits
of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons,
the redemption of our bodies. For in this hope we were saved"
(Rom. 8:22-24). Christians are called to prepare for the Great
Jubilee of the beginning of the third millennium by renewing
their hope in the definitive coming of the kingdom of God, preparing
for it daily in their hearts, in the Christian community to which
they belong, in their particular social context and in world
There is also need for a better appreciation and understanding
of the signs of hope present in the last part of this century,
even though they often remain hidden from our eyes. In society
in general, such signs of hope include: scientific, technological
and especially medical progress in the service of human life,
a greater awareness of our responsibility for the environment,
efforts to restore peace and justice wherever they have been
violated, a desire for reconciliation and solidarity among different
peoples, particularly in the complex relationship between the
North and the South of the world. In the church they include
a greater attention to the voice of the Spirit through the acceptance
of charisms and the promotion of the laity, a deeper commitment
to the cause of Christian unity and the increased interest in
dialogue with other religions and with contemporary culture.
47. The reflection of the faithful in the second year of preparation
ought to focus particularly on the value of unity within the
church, to which the various gifts and charisms bestowed upon
her by the Spirit are directed. In this regard, it will be opportune
to promote a deeper understanding of the ecclesiological doctrine
of the Second Vatican Council as contained primarily in the dogmatic
constitution Lumen Gentium. This important document has expressly
emphasized that the unity of the body of Christ is founded on
the activity of the Spirit, guaranteed by the apostolic ministry
and sustained by mutual love (cf. 1 Cor. 13:1-8). This catechetical
enrichment of the faith cannot fail to bring the members of the
people of God to a more mature awareness of their own responsibilities,
as well as to a more lively sense of the importance of ecclesial
48. Mary, who conceived the incarnate Word by the power of
the Holy Spirit and then in the whole of her life allowed herself
to be guided by his interior activity, will be contemplated and
imitated during this year above all as the woman who was docile
to the voice of the Spirit, a woman of silence and attentiveness,
a woman of hope who, like Abraham, accepted God's will "hoping
against hope" (cf. Rom. 4:18). Mary gave full expression
to the longing of the poor of Yahweh and is a radiant model for
those who entrust themselves with all their hearts to the promises
Year 3: God the Father
49. 1999, the third and final year of preparation, will be
aimed at broadening the horizons of believers so that they will
see things in the perspective of Christ: in the perspective of
the "Father who is in heaven" (cf. Mt. 5:45), from
whom the Lord was sent and to whom he has returned (cf. Jn. 16:28).
"This is eternal life, that they know you the only true
God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent" (Jn. 17:3). The
whole of the Christian life is like a great pilgrimage to the
house of the Father, whose unconditional love for every human
creature, and in particular for the "prodigal son"
(cf. Lk. 15: 11-32), we discover anew each day. This pilgrimage
takes place in the heart of each person, extends to the believing
community and then reaches to the whole of humanity.
The jubilee, centered on the person of Christ, thus becomes
a great act of praise to the Father: "Blessed be the God
and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ
with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, even as
he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we
should be holy and blameless before him" (Eph. 1:3-4).
50. In this third year the sense of being on a "journey
to the Father" should encourage everyone to undertake, by
holding fast to Christ the redeemer of man, a journey of authentic
conversion. This includes both a "negative" aspect,
that of liberation from sin, and a "positive" aspect,
that of choosing good, accepting the ethical values expressed
in the natural law, which is confirmed and deepened by the Gospel.
This is the proper context for a renewed appreciation and more
intense celebration of the sacrament of penance in its most profound
meaning. The call to conversion as the indispensable condition
of Christian love is particularly important in contemporary society,
where the very foundations of an ethically correct vision of
human existence often seem to have been lost.
It will therefore be necessary, especially during this year,
to emphasize the theological virtue of charity, recalling the
significant and lapidary words of the First Letter of John: "God
is love" (4:8, 16). Charity, in its twofold reality as love
of God and neighbor, is the summing up of the moral life of the
believer. It has in God its source and its goal.
51. From this point of view, if we recall that Jesus came
to "preach the good news to the poor" (Mt. 11:5; Lk.
7:22), how can we fail to lay greater emphasis on the church's
preferential option for the poor and the outcast? Indeed, it
has to be said that a commitment to justice and peace in a world
like ours, marked by so many conflicts and intolerable social
and economic inequalities, is a necessary condition for the preparation
and celebration of the jubilee. Thus, in the spirit of the Book
of Leviticus (25:8-12), Christians will have to raise their voice
on behalf of all the poor of the world, proposing the jubilee
as an appropriate time to give thought, among other things, to
reducing substantially, if not canceling outright, the international
debt which seriously threatens the future of many nations. The
jubilee can also offer an opportunity for reflecting on other
challenges of our time, such as the difficulties of dialogue
between different cultures and the problems connected with respect
for women's rights and the promotion of the family and marriage.
52. Recalling that "Christ ... by the revelation of the
mystery of the Father and his love fully reveals man to man himself
and makes his supreme calling clear," two commitments
should characterize in a special way the third preparatory year:
meeting the challenge of secularism and dialogue with the great
With regard to the former, it will be fitting to broach the
vast subject of the crisis of civilization, which has become
apparent especially in the West, which is highly developed from
the standpoint of technology but is interiorly impoverished by
its tendency to forget God or to keep him at a distance. This
crisis of civilization must be countered by the civilization
of love, founded on the universal values of peace, solidarity,
justice and liberty, which find their full attainment in Christ.
53. On the other hand, as far as the field of religious awareness
is concerned, the eve of the year 2000 will provide a great opportunity,
especially in view of the events of recent decades, for interreligious
dialogue, in accordance with the specific guidelines set down
by the Second Vatican Council in its declaration Nostra Aetate
on the relationship of the church to non-Christian religions.
In this dialogue the Jews and the Muslims ought to have a
pre-eminent place. God grant that as a confirmation of these
intentions it may also be possible to hold joint meetings in
places of significance for the great monotheistic religions.
In this regard attention is being given to finding ways of
arranging historic meetings in places of exceptional symbolic
importance like Bethlehem, Jerusalem and Mount Sinai as a means
of furthering dialogue with Jews and the followers of Islam,
and to arranging similar meetings elsewhere with the leaders
of the great world religions. However, care will always have
be taken not to cause harmful misunderstandings, avoiding the
risk of syncretism and of a facile and deceptive irenicism.
54. In this broad perspective of commitments, Mary most holy,
the highly favored daughter of the Father, will appear before
the eyes of believers as the perfect model of love toward both
God and neighbor. As she herself says in the canticle of the
"Magnificat," great things were done for her by the
Almighty, whose name is holy (cf. Lk. 1:49). The Father chose
her for a unique mission in the history of salvation: that of
being the mother of the long-awaited savior. The Virgin Mary
responded to God's call with complete openness: "Behold,
I am the handmaid of the Lord" (Lk. 1:38). Her motherhood,
which began in Nazareth and was lived most intensely in Jerusalem
at the foot of the cross, will be felt during this year as a
loving and urgent invitation addressed to all the children of
God so that they will return to the house of the Father when
they hear her maternal voice: "Do whatever Christ tells
you" (cf. Jn. 2:5).
C. Approaching the Celebration
55. A separate chapter will be the actual celebration of the
Great Jubilee, which will take place simultaneously in the Holy
Land, in Rome and in the local churches throughout the world.
Especially in this phase, the phase of celebration, the aim will
be to give glory to the Trinity, from whom everything in the
world and in history comes and to whom everything returns. This
mystery is the focus of the three years of immediate preparation:
from Christ and through Christ, in the Holy Spirit, to the Father.
In this sense the jubilee celebration makes present in an anticipatory
way the goal and fulfillment of the life of each Christian and
of the whole church in the triune God.
But since Christ is the only way to the Father, in order to
highlight his living and saving presence in the church and the
world the International Eucharistic Congress will take place
in Rome on the occasion of the Great Jubilee. The year 2000 will
be intensely eucharistic: in the sacrament of the eucharist the
savior, who took flesh in Mary's womb 20 centuries ago, continues
to offer himself to humanity as the source of divine life. The
ecumenical and universal character of the sacred jubilee can
be fittingly reflected by a meeting of all Christians. This would
be an event of great significance, and so, in order to avoid
misunderstandings, it should be properly presented and carefully
prepared in an attitude of fraternal cooperation with Christians
of other denominations and traditions, as well as of grateful
openness to those religions whose representatives might wish
to acknowledge the joy shared by all the disciples of Christ.
One thing is certain: Everyone is asked to do as much as possible
to ensure that the great challenge of the year 2000 is not overlooked,
for this challenge certainly involves a special grace of the
Lord for the church and for the whole of humanity.
V "Jesus Christ is the Same . . . Forever" (Heb.
56. The church has endured for 2,000 years. Like the mustard
seed in the Gospel, she has grown and become a great tree, able
to cover the whole of humanity with her branches (cf. Mt. 13:31-32).
The Second Vatican Council, in its Dogmatic Constitution on the
Church, thus addresses the question of membership in the church
and the call of all people to belong to the people of God: "All
are called to be part of this Catholic unity of the new people
of God.... And there belong to it or are related to it in various
ways the Catholic faithful as well as all who believe in Christ,
and indeed the whole of mankind, which by the grace of God is
called to salvation." Pope Paul VI, in the encyclical
Ecclesiam Suam, illustrates how all mankind is involved
in the plan of God and emphasizes the various circles of the
dialogue of salvation.
Continuing this approach, we can also appreciate more clearly
the Gospel parable of the leaven (cf. Mt. 13:33): Christ, like
a divine leaven, always and ever more fully penetrates the life
of humanity, spreading the work of salvation accomplished in
the paschal mystery. What is more, he embraces within his redemptive
power the whole past history of the human race, beginning with
the first Adam. The future also belongs to him: "Jesus
Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever" (Heb.
13:8). For her part the church "seeks but a solitary goal:
to carry forward the work of Christ himself under the lead of
the Holy Spirit, the paraclete. And Christ entered this world
to give witness to the truth, to rescue and not to sit in judgment,
to serve and not to be served."
57. Therefore, ever since the apostolic age the church's mission
has continued without interruption within the whole human family.
The first evangelization took place above all in the region of
the Mediterranean. In the course of the first millennium, missions
setting out from Rome and Constantinople brought Christianity
to the whole continent of Europe. At the same time they made
their way to the heart of Asia, as far as India and China. The
end of the 15th century marked both the discovery of America
and the beginning of the evangelization of that great continent,
North and South.
Simultaneously, while the sub-Saharan coasts of Africa welcomed
the light of Christ, St. Francis Xavier, patron of the missions,
reached Japan. At the end of the 18th century and the beginning
of the 19th, several lay men brought Christianity to Korea. In
the same period the proclamation of the Gospel reached Indochina,
as well as Australia and the islands of the Pacific.
The 19th century witnessed vast missionary activity among
the peoples of Africa. All these efforts bore fruit which has
lasted up to the present day. The Second Vatican Council gives
an account of this in the decree Ad Gentes on missionary
activity. After the council the question of missionary work was
dealt with in the encyclical Redemptoris Missio, in the
light of the problems of the missions in these final years of
our century. In the future, too, the church must continue to
be missionary: Indeed missionary outreach is part of her very
nature. With the fall of the great anti-Christian systems in
Europe, first of nazism and then of communism, there is urgent
need to bring once more the liberating message of the Gospel
to the men and women of Europe. Furthermore, as the encyclical
Redemptoris Missio affirms, the modern world reflects
the situation of the Areopagus of Athens, where St. Paul spoke.
Today there are many areopagi, and very different ones:
These are the vast sectors of contemporary civilization and culture,
of politics and economics. The more the West is becoming estranged
from its Christian roots, the more it is becoming missionary
territory, taking the form of many different areopagi.
58. The future of the world and the church belongs to the
younger generation, to those who born in this century will reach
maturity in the next, the first century of the new millennium.
Christ expects great things from young people, as he did from
the young man who asked him: "What good deed must I do to
have eternal life?" (Mt. 19:16). I have referred to the
remarkable answer which Jesus gave to him in the recent encyclical
Veritatis Splendor, as I did earlier, in 1985, in my apostolic
letter to the youth of the world. Young people, in every situation,
in every region of the world, do not cease to put questions to
Christ: They meet him and they keep searching for him in order
to question him further. If they succeed in following the road
which he points out to them, they will have the joy of making
their own contribution to his presence in the next century and
in the centuries to come, until the end of time: "Jesus
is the same yesterday, today and forever."
59. In conclusion, it is helpful to recall the words of the
pastoral constitution Gaudium et Spes: "The church believes
that Christ, who died and was raised up for all, can through
his Spirit offer man the light and the strength to measure up
to his supreme destiny. Nor has any other name under heaven been
given to man by which it is fitting for him to be saved. She
likewise holds that in her most benign Lord and master can be
found the key, the focal point and the goal of all human history.
The church also maintains that beneath all changes there are
so many realities which do not change and which have their ultimate
foundation in Christ, who is the same yesterday and today and
forever. Hence in the light of Christ, the image of the unseen
God, the firstborn of every creature, the council wishes to speak
to all men in order to illuminate the mystery of man and to cooperate
in finding the solution to the outstanding problems of our time."
While I invite the faithful to raise to the Lord fervent prayers
to obtain the light and assistance necessary for the preparation
and celebration of the forthcoming jubilee, I exhort my venerable
brothers in the episcopate and the ecclesial communities entrusted
to them to open their hearts to the promptings of the Spirit.
He will not fail to arouse enthusiasm and lead people to celebrate
the jubilee with renewed faith and generous participation.
I entrust this responsibility of the whole church to the maternal
intercession of Mary, mother of the redeemer. She, the mother
of fairest love, will be for Christians on the way to the Great
Jubilee of the third millennium the star which safely guides
their steps to the Lord. May the unassuming young woman of Nazareth,
who 2,000 years ago offered to the world the incarnate Word,
lead the men and women of the new millennium toward the one who
is the true light that enlightens every man" (Jn. 1:9).
With these sentiments I impart to all my blessing.
From the Vatican, on Nov. 10 in the year 1994, the 17th of
1 Cf. St. Bernard, "In Laudibus Virginis Matris,"
Homilia IV, 8, Opera Omnia, Edit. Cisterc. (1966),
2 Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World
Gaudium et Spes, 22.
4 Cf. Ant. Iud. 20:200, and the well-known and
much-discussed passage in 18:63-64.
5 Annales 15:44, 3.
6 Vita Claudii, 25:4.
7 Epist. 10:96.
8 Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution on
Divine Revelation Dei Verbum, 15.
9 Encyclical Redemptor Hominis (March 4, 1979),
10 Cf. encyclical Dominum et Vivificantem (May
18, 1986), 49ff.
11 Cf. apostolic letter Euntes in Mundum (Jan.
12 Cf. encyclical Centesimus Annus (May 1, 1991),
13 Cf. Gaudium et Spes, 47-52.
14 Second Vatican Ecumenical Council Dogmatic Constitution
on the Church Lumen Gentium, 1.
15 Cf. apostolic exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia
(Dec. 2, 1984).
16 Lumen Gentium, 8.
17 Second Vatican Council, Decree on Ecumenism Unitatis
18 Cf. ibid.
19 Second Vatican Council, Declaration on Religious Freedom
Dignitatis Humanae, 1.
20 Gaudium et Spes, 19.
21 Tertullian, Apol., 50:13: CCL 1:171.
22 Cf. Acta Apostolicae Sedis 56 (1964), 906.
23 Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration
on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions Nostra
24 Dei Verbum, 25.
25 Cf. ibid., 2.
26 Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1271.
27 Apostolic constitution Fidei Depositum (Oct.
28 Lumen Gentium, 62.
29 Ibid., 65.
30 Dominum et Vivificantem (May 18, 1986), 50.
31 Ibid., 51.
32 Lumen Gentium, 7.
33 Cf. ibid., 37.
34 Gaudium et Spes, 22.
35 Lumen Gentium, 13.
36 Cf. Paul VI, encyclical Ecclesiam Suam (Aug.
6, 1964), III.
37 Cf. Lumen Gentium, 2.
38 Ibid., 3.
39 Cf. declaration of the Special Assembly for Europe
of the Synod of Bishops, 3.
40 Cf. encyclical Redemptoris Missio (Dec. 7, 1990),
41 Gaudium et Spes, 10.
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