HANSEATIC CITY LUEBECK
The following and further data can be inferred also from a time board.
1143: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LUEBECK
As an official year of the establishment of Luebeck 1143 one calls. In this year count Adolf von Schauenburg established a Christian buyer settlement on almost completely the egg-shaped hill Buku surrounded by the rivers Wakenitz and Trave. To this place the designation " Luebeck " was transferred.
But there were here already earlier settlements. The first settlement, which the name "Liubice" (the beautiful one, which lovely ones) carried, was not even situated on the peninsula, but Trave and Schwartau remove some kilometers at the confluence of the rivers. It consisted of a king castle, a Christian church and commercial addresses. Settlements (" alto Luebeck ") can be retraced into the year 819. The last settlement alto Luebeck before the establishment of Luebeck was down-burned 1138 by Slawen.
The place had not been unmethodically selected, because when its efforts to in-German the slawische area needed Adolf of castlecastle castle a commercial town which was situated favorably, which actually drew north trade with the east. Already longer time existed here a trade route. It protected the only acces to the settlement in the north with a castle and led buyers from the west - above all Westphalia and Rhine countries - into this city.
That the place was commercialpolitically skillfully selected, the leaning gentleman of count Adolf, noticed Herzog Heinrich the lion fast at the decrease of the trade in its market places Bardowik and Lueneburg. Many buyers moved away to Luebeck.
It came to arguments between the duke and the count. The decision was caused by a fire of the city 1157. The duke instructed the transfer to the count and created on the same workstation the city again. The sketch was determined already at that time, which kept until today. The hill - formed like a turtle tank - is in the longitudinal axis from the northern burgtor to the mill gate in the south of the main traffic vein (mill road, width road, Koberg, large castle route) pulled through. From this chessboard-like the roads lead to the watercourses of the Trave in the west and the Wakenitz in the east. Most roads, which lead to the Trave, are called " pits ".
1160: THE FIRST YEARS AND THE DANES
In consciousness the correct place to have selected at the right time and build, duke Heinrich the lion the city equipped a new large failure gate to the Baltic Sea with numerous privileges. It gave her the municipal law after Soester model, which was transferred later than " Lueb right " of more than 100 cities in the Baltic Sea space.
, duke Heinrich the diocese from Oldenburg shifts already 1160, three years after the reestablishment to Luebeck, 1163 the first cathedral is geweiht. the building of one of the largest buildings of bricks of Northern Germany, the large romanischen cathedral church, which in the year 1230 one completed, begins 1173.
Heinrich the lion 1181 with emperor Friedrich Barbarossa fell in disgrace, this however Luebeck an attendance off and granted to the city 1188 further privileges.
1201 Luebeck fell for 25 years into the hands of the Danes. After the victory of the Luebecker over the Danes with Bornhoeved (1227) the power of the Danes in Northern Germany was finally broken. Since this occurred on the Maria Magdalenen day, the holy one was explained as the Luebecker Schutzpatronin and donated to it a monastery led by Dominikanern, the castle monastery, which is received until today.
Bornhoeved marked the ascent of Luebeck. The ascent of the agilen buyer city made the Baltic Sea for centuries a German sea. Luebeck - as northern Gegenpol to the southern bridgehead Venice - became the commercial centre of the Baltic Sea, the born "head of the Hanse". This power ended only, when by the discovery Americas the commercial stream of the Baltic Sea shifted into the North Sea and the Atlantic and Hamburg and Bremen Luebeck rank ran.
1226: THE BOY CITY GROWS RACING
Friedrich II. the city Luebeck raised 1226 to the free realm city (realm immediacy). Thus advice and citizenry only it were not alone subject, had a count, no duke and no bishop to obey. This autonomy of Luebeck ended only 711 years later with an order Adolf Hitler from the year 1937 (large Hamburg law). Many Luebecker state today, this occurred from revenge, because the Luebecker would have refused 1932 an election campaign appearance in its walls to the LV leader.
The realm liberty of 1226 gave the possibility its own of a right and thus a strong and independent commercial policy to Luebeck. This desired law factory attained validity (Lueb right)in manyBaltic Sea cities.
But this was not only copied. The Luebecker advice had let a " citizen cathedral " build as counterpart for the cathedral and printout of own power: St. Marien, which was geweiht 1350 as advice church. It became in that ultramodern gotischen architectural style taken over by France establishes - here in Luebeck for the first time daringly with bricks, since there was no limestone in Northern Germany. This Marienkirche, finances from 120 wealthy Buyer families of the city, was sample church for many later foundations of a town. Frequently it was copied - although in smaller masses.
Often the citizen and merchants' houses of Luebeck with their level stufengiebeln and uniform property masses (25 times 100 foot) were copied, which closely lined up the axles and pits of the city saeumten and a townscape of unbelievable unanimity darboten - a stony image of economic power, which loaded to the imitation. Thus it resulted almost inevitably that Luebeck slammed shut into the Hanse the guide roller.
1266: THE HANSE: EMERGENCE AND ASCENT
The Hanse (old high German Hansa: Crowd, federation) was born 1266. At that time the German buyers active in England called its union Hanse. From the buyer federation a standard ware of down-German cities turned out. Target were the protection of the trade, particularly since a strong realm force was missing, as well as preservation and extension of urban liberty, keeping of the patrizisch aristrokratischen regiment in the cities and the assistance in the kriegsfall by crew and ships.
The Hanse had neither officials nor warships, but could it one considerable fleet and an army muster, where diplomacy and the persuasive power of the cash were not always sufficient. The power of the Baltic Sea trade permitted, three centuries to the standard ware long by a strong and to order skillful policy of the rising competition from Scandinavia and Russia.
Luebeck protected itself 1329 by the acquisition Travemuendes an unhindered acces to the Baltic Sea. The ascent of Luebeck was based on the envelope of the raw materials of the north and the east against finished goods of the west and the south. Addresses (kontore) were created in London, Bruegge, Antwerp, mountains and Novgorod.
The buyers were arranged into different companies. The Novgorodfahrer brought fur, wood, wax, pitch, tar, flax and hemp from Russia, the preservation drivers the herrings important as chamfering food, the Sweden drivers of ores, the mountain drivers to stick fish from Norway. From England and Flanders cloth and metal goods came. Connections with Frankfurt, Nuernberg, Augsburg and Strasbourg served the trade with goods of the Mediterranean and the Orients.
Crucial advantage of the Hanse: Their, seaworthy ships seizing up to 100 tons, the so-called Hansekoggen, which placed all ship types existing so far at size and transportability into the shadow. Still up to the dreissigjaehrigen war the Luebecker fleet was more largely than England, only the Dutchmen possessed more ships.
More than 100 cities, not only Baltic Sea adjoining owners, closed the federation to 1350 were the Hans federation on the high point of its power. Since 1356 Hans floor in the Luebecker city hall were held. The Hansedeligierten discussed not only economic questi0ns, but decided also on war and peace. And: The Hans day had to find frequently whether it a king selected in Denmark or Sweden genehm was or not.
The year 1370 brought after heavy fights in ten years a lasting war with Denmark to the peace of Stralsund. It cemented of Luebeck rule over the Baltic Sea. No miracle thus that emperor Karl IV. addressed the members of the advice with " their gentlemen " with its attendance 1375, an address, on only the oberschichten of the cities Bruegge in Flanders, Luebeck in Alemanien, Paris in France and Vienna in Austria a claim had.
Luebeck ranked now beside Rome, Pisa, Florenz and Venice among the five gentleman masters of its realm. At that time Luebeck had approximately 30,000 inhabitants - a number, which exceeded Cologne in Germany only. Of Luebeck expansion corresponded to the today's old part of town.
1391-1398 built the Luebecker a channel of the Trave to the Elbe (the " Stecknitzfahrt "), the first artificial water way of Northern Europe. The next years finally brought the union of the nordischen states in the Kalmarer union (1397), fights for the liberty of the Sundschiffahrt, to the favorable Utrechter peace with England and 1478 a heavy impact by the locking of the branch office in Novgorod on the part of the large princes of Moscow. Also Luebeck lost its hinterland Holstein, which was received a personnel union with Denmark.
1531-1630: REFORMATION AND END OF THE HANSE
1531 Luebeck became Protestant - after long arguments interspersed of broad citizen movement against the conservative advice (singer war "). 1530 on requests of the advice doctor Johannes Bugenhagen had come (Beichtvater and close trusted friends of Luther), in order to create a new church order. With its train -, ill and social order arranged he the entire community 1531 the new order was assumed again and announced. The monasteries were resolved or converted into latin schools or poor and hospitals.
Also in the advice new customs drew in: For the first time so the craftsmen could be selected, beside buyers also different civil one. With Juergen Wullenwever brought it to 1533 only seven years before from Hamburg a moving even to the mayor. But this controlled Luebeck by its attempt to re-create with an adventurous war policy the great power position in the Osteeraum into the disaster. The end of Wullenwever: He was taken prisoner by of Bremen the archbishop and 1537 in Wolfenbuettel beheads.
By the discovery travels and the European settlement America the Baltic Sea was sudden no more centers of the trade. England and Holland erstarkten. The high point of the power of the Baltic Sea cities was exceeded. Also by political and military Taktieren was those Not to re-create supremacy of Luebeck. In addition came: The reformation promoted a non-standard view of life, which trade ebbed increasingly and the genossenschaftliche network of the Hanse loosened itself. More and more cities oriented themselves to the west and stayed away from the Hans floors - in former times this punishing the remaining members would have released, but gave it no more argument.
The last Hans day was held 1630. Only Luebeck, Hamburg and Bremen participated in it. These cities united to special managers of the Hans thought, but it lasted until 1980, until the Hans floor on initiative of the Dutch Zwolle (Hans day of the modern times) again were introduced.
After the end of the Hanse Luebeck remained an important buyer and commercial town, wealthy, but no longer immeasurably rich. The 1613 established attachment systems kept the 30jaehrigen away war. Innovations in the areas of the trade and the economy were introduced other place one. Luebeck however retained the tradition.
1806: THE FRENCHMEN
Napoleon covered for Europe with war, but although Luebeck behaved neutrally, it was pulled in into the arguments between France and Prussia. After the battle of Jena and Auerstedt sections of the Prussian army under Bluecher fled themselves into those on 5 November 1806 old Hanseatic city. Although this represented a violation of its neutrality, the Luebecker could not align anything against this military intervention. On the next day it came before the gates of the city with that Village rate-chew to a battle. The Frenchmen won, drew into Luebeck and pluenderten in the city several days long. The following quartering, obligation deliveries and deliveries as well as by the Frenchmen operate-end isolation politics, which brought the trade to succumbing, harmed the city heavily.
1811 were incorporated Luebeck by decree the empire. Only 1813 were released the city from the Russians under Tettenborn. Final release came at the beginning of of December 1813 with the chute of marshal Bernadotte - the same marshal, who had taken 1806 the city and now as designate Kronprinz on the page of Sweden fought.
1815: AFTER THE FRENCHMEN
1815 became Luebeck by the Viennese congress again independent national territory. Fights for many decades with Denmark for the traffic routes of Luebeck followed. The burden of debts, which rested since the Frenchman time on the city, was tremendous.
But the North Sea cities did not only oppose an upswing, but also at the Baltic Sea competition had developed. Prussia promoted Stettin, Danzig and king mountain, Denmark the keel ranking among its territory. But since Russia and Sweden Luebeck supported, could the buyers slowly again foot seize. the letzen selected 1820 after that Viennese congress of remaining realm cities (Hamburg, Luebeck, Bremen, Frankfurt) Luebeck as seat of their court of appeal - Luebeck had thus still high reputation.
The revolution year 1848 brought also in Luebeck constitutional amendments - for the first time all citizens were taken part by the selection of a parliament in the city regiment. 1866 became Luebeck member north Germans of the federation, 1871 Federal State of the German one of Reich developed again. A road to Hamburg, the new commercial centre in the north, was built; however the Danes, to who the Holstein which was situated between the cities belonged, raised high inches.
Tying up the railway became to Hamburg (1865), after Mecklenburg (1870) and Kiel (1873) establishes. 1886-1893 invested into the development of the port and at the same time tried Luebeck to drive the industrialization of the city in front. There was a setback by the initialization of the north Baltic Sea channel 1895 in Kiel, which away-directed navigation of Luebeck. The initialization of the Elbe Luebeck channel 1900 moderated the developed commercial disadvantages however again starting from 1906 the high yard factory in Herrenwyk was based (torn off 1991). 1911 received the status of a large city and a 1920 a democratic condition to Luebeck.
1933: THE END OF THE SOVEREIGNTY
The seizure of power of the national socialists in the year 1933 brought also for Luebeck a fright rule with itself, which ended in a disaster. In the years after the First World War many Luebecker for the social-democracy and for the strong communist movement had engaged themselves. They became now the target of the injustice regime. **time-out** immediately after the the seizure of power the the Luebecker delegate Dr. Julius liver arrest and to twenty month detention condemn. Later it was executed. An inscription at the arsenal nearby the cathedral, in whose cellar the secret state police (Gestapo) and detention cells had created its torture spaces, reminds of the LV fright years and suffering all that Luebecker, which pursues with national job because of their political, religious conviction or from racistic motives merciless, into the misery was fallen and killed (see also Christian process).
The regime of the NSDAP, which found numerous trailers also in Luebeck, did not have for the history of the Hanseatic city much remaining. Luebeck was attached 1937 of the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein, its national independence by the "large Hamburg law" was removed. At the same time the former prince diocese Luebeck was removed and into the districts Eutin and Oldenburg integrated.
1942 were destroyed a large part of the old part of town by English bomb attack at Palmsonntag - also a St. Marien. That it not to further bomb attacks in runs the war came and thus to a complete destruction of the city is Swiss statesman Carl Jacob Burckhardt and that Hamburg banker Eric being castle to be owed. They switched the international red cross on, in order to save Luebeck current assistance for Scandinavian KZ passengers and to turn further bomb attacks away on the old part of town.
1944 became Luebeck place of transshipment for auxiliary gifts to prisoners of war, particularly from the USA on 2 May 1945 marched British troops, without discovering Gegenwehr, into the city in. Its own city state such as Hamburg and Bremen did not become Luebeck despite various attempts any more. Since that time it belongs to the country Schleswig-Holstein.
PERIPHERAL LOCATION AND WORLD CULTURAL HERITAGE
After the German division Luebeck was until 1989 zone border area. The rich historical built volumes and the singular Altstadtensembel were raised from the UNESCO 1987 into the rank " world cultural heritage ". It obligates the city to extensive preventive measures. A sequence of it: The citizenry decides to banish the auto to a large extent starting from 14 June 1995 from the old part of town.